Pride and Prejudice (1995)
"I cannot fix on the hour, or the spot, or the look, or the words, which laid the foundation. It is too long ago. I was in the middle before I knew that I had begun."
In honor of the ladies who have motivated, paved the way and given hope to so many of us, we rounded up powerful quotes from some of the world’s most inspirational women.
A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
Bread is serious fucking business.
Man the bread fandom don’t put up with shit at all.
""A dude who can walk into any kitchen in the world and make bread is COMPLETELY RAW"
"black widow is a supporting character" your spine is a supporting structure in your body let’s see how well you do without it
A report from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey conducted by the National Gay & Lesbian Task Force and the National Center for Transgender Equality, found that transgender people faced double the rate of unemployment of the general population, with 63 percent of the transgender people surveyed reporting they experienced a serious act of discrimination that majorly affected their ability to sustain themselves. These numbers are even worse for trans people of color, especially trans women of color, the deaths of whom have been deemed a “state of emergency.”
Trans women have been saddled with the responsibility of taking on trans-exclusionary feminists for far too long—but it’s not their issue to deal with alone.
Read: It’s Time to End the Long History of Feminism Failing Transgender Women by Tina Vasquez at BitchMedia.org. Type illustrations by Michelle Leigh.
She helps her mother sell food by the beach. As she posed for the portrait, all I saw was beauty and confidence. Lagos, Nigeria. Photo: Francis Kokoroko 2014
onetwowon asked: I've always wondered about the amount of water one is supposed to drink per day and what counts as 'water'. For example if one were to drink a glass of milk and one of fruit juice, is it still advisable to drink 8 glasses of water or is it 8-2=6?
There’s really no right amount that’s going to suit everyone. People who are active are going to need more fluids during the day than people who are inactive, larger people need more than smaller, certain medications will require extra water, etc. It all really depends on what keeps you comfortable and how your body reacts - The best thing you can do is listen to your body and look for the warning signs of dehydration.
All liquids are going to “count,” and so will some juicy foods like watermelon or cucumber, but some are going to be much more effective at hydrating you than others. Most caffeinated drinks and alcohol, for example, are diuretics that will just cause your body to eliminate fluid instead of retaining it. Make sure that you have some regular ol’ water in your daily diet, just for good measure.
You don’t need to force yourself to drink 8 glasses of water just for the sake of it. It may not be healthy to get dehydrated and have dark yellow pee, but it’s also not healthy to be running to the bathroom every 15 minutes - You need a happy medium. If you have to force yourself to consume water and if it messes with your daily routine (consistently having to get up night, for example), then it’s time to cut back and/or talk to a doctor. As much as the fitness community may joke about it, constantly having to pee is a bad sign. If you feel like that for more than a week, get checked out.